In November 2018, the government announced air agreements with the United States, Canada and eight other countries to secure flights after Brexit. Also in November, agreements were presented to Parliament with Australia, Canada and the United States on cooperation on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and an agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency on security measures under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Talks between the EU and the UK are under way to reach a post-Brexit free trade agreement before the end of the year. These large-scale agreements can take several years of detailed negotiations. Although British Prime Minister Boris Johnson insists that an agreement must be reached by 15 October, no agreement has been reached. In December 2018, the government announced that an agreement had been reached with Switzerland for a transition between the UK and Switzerland during the planned VA transition period, in accordance « as much as possible » with existing agreements. It would also allow most agreements to be replicated if the UK left the EU without a deal. Many of the EU`s trade agreements are still being ratified and are only being implemented temporarily. CETA is a mixed agreement.
Chapters under the exclusive competence of the Union are currently being applied on an interim basis, with ratification not yet completed in the Member States. On the other hand, the chapter on investment protection is not yet implemented until ratification by members. The EU and Singapore have negotiated a free trade agreement and an investment protection agreement, two separate treaties. The trade agreement came into force at the end of 2019, after the approval of the European Parliament and the Council. The investment protection agreement still needs to be ratified by all Member States according to their own national procedures. In mid-2019, the EU signed a trade agreement and an investment protection agreement with Vietnam. The free trade agreement with Vietnam was approved by the European Parliament in February 2020; Vietnam has already complied with EU requirements for compliance with international labour standards.