Sykes And Picot Agreement

The Sykes-Picot Agreement (officially the 1916 agreement in Asia Minor) was a secret agreement reached during world war I between the British and French governments on the division of the Ottoman Empire between the Allies. Russia also participated in the talks. US President Woodrow Wilson rejected all secret agreements between allies and encouraged open diplomacy and ideas of self-determination. On November 22, 1917, Leon Trotsky sent a note to the petrograd ambassadors that « contained proposals for a ceasefire and democratic peace without annexation and without compensation based on the principle of nation independence and their right to determine the nature of their own development. » [68] Peace negotiations with the four-year Alliance – Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey – began a month later in Brest-Litovsk. On behalf of the Quadrennial Alliance, Count Czernin replied on 25 December that « the question of the nationality of national groups that do not have the independence of the state should be constitutionally resolved by any state and its peoples independently » and that « the right of minorities is an essential part of the constitutional right of peoples to self-determination ». [69] This year, the discussions of the agreement took place in many countries that linked the events of the First World War to the crisis that has hit the Middle East region today. The thesis on « the collapse of the Sykes-Picot system », which establishes boundaries that ignored the historical, geographical and demographic realities of the region, has gained momentum. It is often forgotten that the agreements between England and France from 1915 to 1916 did not in fact constitute borders between the future territories/states of Mashriq. This is what happened later at the Paris Peace Conference (January 18, 1919- January 21, 1920), in the Treaty of Sevres of August 10, 192 and at conferences in San Remo (April 19-26, 1920) and Lausanne (sporadically between November 20, 1922 and July 24, 1923).

In addition, part of Mashriq`s Anglo-French management plan was the Balfour Declaration, a letter from British Foreign Minister Arthur Balfour to Lord Rothschild on 2 November, expressing the London agreement on the « creation of a national homeland for the Jewish people » in Palestine, to be forwarded to the Zionist Federation. The agreement was drawn up and negotiated by the country`s diplomats over the next few months and signed by the Allies between 18 August and 26 September 1917. [38] Russia was not represented in this agreement because the Tsarist regime was in the midst of a revolution. The lack of Russian approval of the Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne agreement was then used by the British at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference to invalidate it, a position that greatly outraged the Italian government. [41] After the Constantinople Agreement, on 8 April 1915, the French turned to the British to develop their reciprocal desiderata, and the British set up the De Bunsen Committee to examine British options. [45] Zionism was not taken into account in the June 1915 Committee report,[46] which concluded that in the event of division or zone of influence, there must be a British sphere of influence that included Palestine, while accepting that there be relevant French and Russian interests, as well as Islamic interests, in Jerusalem and in the holy places. [47] [48] In his introduction to a symposium on Sykes-Picot in 2016, law professor Anghie notes that much of the agreement entrusts « trade and trade agreements, access to ports and railway construction. » [50] The agreement was based on the premise that the Triple Agreement was a matter of the First World War and was part of a series of secret agreements that reflected on its partition.